Just because you’re retired doesn’t mean you should stop saving. Carefully managing your money and looking for ways to save will help ensure you remain financially fit during retirement. Consider these tips:
Construct a financial plan.
Most retirees fear that they’ll run out of money during retirement. To ease those fears, create a financial plan detailing how much money will be obtained from what sources and how that income will be spent. Make sure your annual withdrawal amount won’t cause you to deplete your savings. Review your plan annually to ensure you stay on course.
Consider part-time employment.
Especially if you retire at a relatively young age, you might want to work on at least a part-time basis. Even earning a modest amount can help significantly with retirement expenses. However, if you receive Social Security benefits and are between the ages of 62 and full retirement age, you will lose $1 of benefits for every $2 of earnings above $18,960 in 2021. You might want to keep your income below that threshold or delay Social Security benefits until later in retirement.
Contribute to your 401(k) plan or individual retirement account (IRA).
If you work after retirement, put some of that money into a 401(k) plan or IRA. As long as you have earned income and meet the eligibility requirements, you can contribute to these plans.
Try before you buy.
Want to relocate to another city or purchase a recreational vehicle to travel around the country? Before you buy a home in an unfamiliar city or purchase an expensive recreational vehicle, try renting first.
Keep debt to a minimum.
Most consumer loans and credit cards charge high interest rates that aren’t tax deductible. During retirement, that can put a serious strain on your finances. If you can’t pay cash, avoid the purchase.
Look for deals.
Take the time to shop wisely, not just at stores, but for all purchases. When was the last time you compared prices for auto or home insurance? Can you find a credit card with lower fees and interest rates? When did you last refinance your mort-gage?
Evaluating P/E Ratios
Price/earnings (P/E) ratios are a common measure of stock value, both for individual stocks and the overall market. Calculating a P/E ratio is straightforward — it is simply the price of a single share of stock divided by the company’s per share earnings.
When considering public companies, it seems reasonable that well-established businesses growing in a fairly predictable pattern would command a higher P/E ratio than a small private business. Typically, companies with higher growth rates command higher P/E ratios.
The difficulty is deciding what a reasonable P/E ratio is for a particular company or for the overall stock market. It generally helps to follow the P/E ratios of stocks that interest you, along with companies in similar industries, to develop a feel for how the P/E ratios fluctuate.
Reviewing a company’s P/E ratio for prior years can also be helpful. If a company’s growth rate in the past is expected to continue in the future and market conditions are similar, you might not expect much change in P/E ratios. But you also must evaluate whether changes to the company, its industry, or the overall stock market would cause an increase or decrease in the company’s P/E ratio.
Researchers found that investors with larger accounts follow more contrarian strategies, reflect the news in their trades, and experience subsequent gains, while smaller accounts tend to follow momentum-based strategies, fail to account for the news when placing trades, and incur trading losses. They also found that these trends were stronger for younger men. The study’s authors found that all groups of individual investors lose money, though individual investors with larger account sizes lose significantly less on average (Source: AAIIJournal, August 2020).
Another study found that investors with a high level of financial literacy take too many risks, overborrow, and hold naive financial attitudes. However, this high level of financial literacy also lends itself to better retirement planning, since people with more financial literacy are more likely to have a retirement savings plan. In addition, financially literate households earn higher financial returns than illiterate ones. (Source: AAIIJournal, August 2020).